|Watch out where you're pointing that, bucko|
This X-ray device has a number of advantages, including being non-destructive, fast, and not needing too much sample preparation. However, the device is not yet as sophisticated of the Star Trek "tricorder." It does better with samples of size greater than 1 cm, and is more sensitive toward some metals over others-- thus, even when properly calibrated and operated, it can't always uniquely identify the volcanic source of a specimen. Still, it's much faster than the Vulcan mind-meld.